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Focus on Prostate Cancer: Facts, Causes and Classification

October 14, 2016

prostate-cancer-ukProstate cancer is a disease which only affects men. Cancer begins to grow in the prostate – a gland in the male reproductive system. The word “prostate” comes from Medieval Latin prostate and Medieval French prostate. The ancient Greek word prostates means “one standing in front”, from proistanai meaning “set before”. The prostate is so called because of its position – it is at the base of the bladder.  

Fast facts on prostate cancer

Here are some key points about prostate cancer. Across the UK

  • Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men.
  • Over 47,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year – that’s 130 men every day.
  • Every hour one man dies from prostate cancer – that’s more than 10,800 men every year.
  • 1 in 8 men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime.
  • Over 330,000 men are living with and after prostate cancer.

In Scotland

  • More than 3,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year in Scotland.
  • More than 850 men die from prostate cancer every year in Scotland.
  • Every da

August 16, 2016

metastatic breast cancerA new study published online by JAMA Oncology examines the prevalence and significance of estrogen receptor mutations in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The activation of the estrogen receptor (ER) is a feature of most breast cancers in which ER expression is detected. An aromatase inhibitor (AI) for estrogen deprivation therapy is an effective therapy for those tumors and reduces disease illness and death. Outcomes for patients with ER-positive metastatic breast cancer who are treated with AIs vary considerably, with relapse for some patients within months and after many years for others. Sarat Chandarlapaty, M.D., Ph.D., of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and coauthors conducted a secondary analysis of cell-free DNA from 541 patients enrolled in a clinical trial to determine the prevalence of mutations and whether they were associated with worse outcomes. The authors report 29 percent of patients had a mutation in the estrogen receptor and mutation was associated with shorter overall survival, according to the report. “Mutations in the estrogen receptor are common in patients with metastatic breast cancer who were previously treated with an aromatase

August 16, 2016

cancer-imAlthough diseases of the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular disease, CVD) kill more people worldwide than anything else, with 17.3 million deaths globally, cancer has now overtaken CVD as the main cause of death in 12 European countries. New data on the burden of CVD in Europe for 2016, which are published today (Monday) in the European Heart Journal, show that in the European region (defined as the 53 member states of the World Health Organisation) CVD caused more than four million deaths each year, 45% of all deaths. However, success in preventing and treating the disease has led to large decreases in CVD in a number of countries. Despite cancer accounting for less than half the number of deaths than CVD in Europe as a whole, in nine of the 15 countries which were members of the European Union before 2004 (EU-15) and in another country that was among those that joined the EU afterwards (EU-28), more men now die from cancer than CVD. These countries are: Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. This was also the case in Norway and Israel (which are not members of the EU). Among women, more die from cancer than CVD in Denmark and Israel. Dr Nick

August 16, 2016
blood-cancerScientists at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, have identified how an inherited genetic variant, associated with an increased risk of developing the most common type of leukaemia, helps cancer cells survive. The findings could lead to new ways to target the disease.   Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a slowly progressing and incurable form of cancer that affects blood-producing cells in the bone marrow. It is diagnosed in over 4,000 people each year in the UK.   CLL sometimes runs in families and recent studies by the team at The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) have shown that, rather than a being due to a single genetic fault, this inherited susceptibility is down to many subtle variations in a person’s DNA. Typically, the more of these inherited genetic variations that a person carries, the higher their risk of developing the disease.   Studies known as genome wide association studies, which analyse genetic information from both patients and healthy individuals to look for genetic associations with diseases, have so far identified 31 areas of the genome where DNA variations are linked with an increased risk of developing CLL. One of th

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